Wednesday, December 7, 2016

[Botany • 2013] Curcuma leonidii • A New Species (Zingiberaceae) from southern Vietnam

Curcuma leonidii Škorničk. & Lưu

Photos: Lưu H. Trương     DOI: 10.11646/phytotaxa.126.1.4

Curcuma leonidii, a new species of Curcuma subg. Hitcheniopsis (Zingiberaceae) from southern Vietnam is described and illustrated here. Curcuma leonidii with flowers similar to some Stahlianthus-like species but inflorescences consisting of up to 8 green bracts and their arrangements conforming to usual ‘classical’ Curcuma-like species provides the much-awaited morphological link between the two genera, of which Stahlianthus have been, based on molecular results, recently proposed to be merged with Curcuma subg. Hitcheniopsis.

Keywords: Bù Gia Mập National Park, Curcuma subgenus Hitcheniopsis, Stahlianthus

FIGURE 1. Curcuma leonidii A. Habit. B. Inflorescence. C. Flower. D. Anther (front, back and side views, scale bar 5 mm).
Photos: Lưu Hồng Trương 

Similar to Curcuma harmandii Gagnep. (subg. Hitcheniopsis) in inflorescence consisting of green bracts with no obvious coma, but differs from it by having a more compact inflorescence (vs. more elongated in C. harmandii), white corolla lobes (vs. greenish), white oblanceolate-spathulate shape of the lateral staminodes (vs. greenish-white nearly linear) and white labellum with rich yellow well-defined median, the sides of the basal half of the median puberulent, patched with red, and nearly plain margin (vs. white labellum with yellow pubescent median bordered around with pink tinge, especially towards the apex, and crisped margin).

Etymology:— We dedicate this small but beautiful species to Prof. Leonid V. Averyanov, who first brought this species to our attention. Prof. Averyanov made exemplary contributions to the knowledge of Vietnamese Orchidaceae. With his main Vietnamese collaborators, Prof. Phan Kế Lộc and Dr. Nguyễn Tiến Hiệp, he also conducted multiple expeditions during past 20 years leading to great enhancement of general floristic and phytogeographic knowledge of Vietnam and adjacent areas of eastern Indochina (e.g. Averyanov et al. 2003).

  J. Leong-Škorničková and Hồng Trường Lưu. 2013. Curcuma leonidii, A New Species from southern Vietnam.  Phytotaxa. 126(1); 37–42.  DOI: 10.11646/phytotaxa.126.1.4

[Entomology • 2016] Allenipeplus spp. • A New Genus of the Subfamily Cillaeinae (Coleoptera, Nitidulidae) from the Philippines and New Guinea with Notes on the Taxonomy and Phylogeny of the Subfamily

Allenipeplus philippinensis 
Kovalev & Kirejtshuk, 2016  


Allenipeplus gen. nov. represented by Allenipeplus philippinensis sp. nov., type species (Philippines, Luzon), A. alius sp. nov. (Philippines, Mindoro), A. harmonicus sp. nov. (Philippines, Mindanao) and A. vitellinus sp. nov. (Indonesian New Guinea), is described. This new genus combines characters with a mosaic spread among other cillaeine genera. We present a wide comparison of genera among the subfamily Cillaeinae, making it possible to elaborate a detailed diagnosis of the new genus and trace some order in character patterns and propose a hypothesis on the relationship of this genus to other groups known from the Indo-Malayan and Australian Regions. A detailed diagnosis of the new genus and key to the new species are given. The Adocimus-complex of the related genera including Allenipeplus gen. nov., Adocimus Murray, 1864, Ithyphenes Murray, 1864, Platynema Ritsema, 1885 and probably Brittonema Kirejtshuk, 2011 is defined. Some notes on the taxonomy of the genera Liparopeplus Murray, 1864 and Xanthopeplus Fairmaire, 1880, stat. nov. are given. Additionally, designation of a lectotype for Liparopeplus colastoides Murray, 1864 is made.

Keywords: Coleoptera, sap beetles, new species, lectotype, Indo-Malayan and Australian Regions

Alexey V. Kovalev and Alexander G. Kirejtshuk. 2016. A New Genus of the Subfamily Cillaeinae (Coleoptera, Nitidulidae) from the Philippines and New Guinea with Notes on the Taxonomy and Phylogeny of the Subfamily.
Zootaxa. 4205(3); 226–242. DOI:  10.11646/zootaxa.4205.3.3

[Botany • 2016] Rafflesia parvimaculata • A New Species of Rafflesia (Rafflesiaceae) from Peninsular Malaysia

Rafflesia parvimaculata 
Sofiyanti, Mat-Salleh, Khairil, Zuhailah, Mohd. Ros & Burslem 

FIGURE 2. Morphology of Rafflesia parvimaculata sp. nov. A. Mature bud, B. Male flower fully open, C. Inner side of floral perigone tube of male flower, D. Unbranched ramenta, E. Upper surface of disk showing processes of male flower, F. Lower surface of disk showing anthers (insert : pollen grain).
Scale bars: A, C 5 cm; B 10 cm; D 1 cm; E, F 2,5 cm (Specimens : A not collected; B–E LJ4 a1; F LJ4 f3).


The new species Rafflesia parvimaculata is described from Pahang, Peninsular Malaysia. This species is characterized by its numerous small white warts on the perigone lobes, and also by its slender, unbranched, capitate ramenta that are white in color and densely arranged inside the floral perigone tube. These unique characters distinguish R. parvimaculata from other Rafflesia species. The discovery of this new species brings the total number of Rafflesia species described from Peninsular Malaysia to five

Keywords: Rafflesia, Pahang, numerous warts, white ramenta, Eudicots

Rafflesia parvimaculata Sofiyanti, Mat-Salleh, Khairil, Zuhailah, Mohd. Ros & Burslem sp. nov.  

Rafflesia parvimaculata has numerous small warts on the perigone lobe and the window. These warts have a well-spaced arrangement on both structures. Ramenta are slender, unbranched, capitate, white in color and densely arranged. These unique characters are the characteristics of this new species.

 Type:─ MALAYSIA : Peninsular Malaysia, Pahang, Lata Jarum. 03 55.92º N, 102 01.99 º E. 29 December 2005, LJ4 a1. Male. (Holotype UKMB!).

Distribution and ecology: — Rafflesia parvimaculata is an endoparasitic species that grows on the root or stem of Tetrastigma sp. (Vitaceae). The specimen of Tetrastigma was not collected. This new species was collected in hill dipterocarp forest at an elevation of 200 to 400 m a.s.l. in the Lata Jarum Forest, Pahang, Peninsular Malaysia. A photograph of a Rafflesia from Perak (Peninsular Malaysia) (Courtesy of Siti Munirah M.Y, FRIM that has been deposited in the Kew Herbarium shows similar morphological characters to this new species, especially in the presence of numerous white small warts on the perigone lobes. Therefore we tentatively suggest that Rafflesia parvimaculata may also occur in Perak, although further exploration in this region is required to verify this conclusion.

Etymology:— The specific epithet refers to the numerous small warts on the perigone lobes. It is derived from the Latin parvi (small) and maculate (stain, spot, wart).

Phenology:— Flowers were observed by us in February, March, September and December. Variation in the size of buds observed in February suggests that the flower can be found throughout the year independently of season.

 Nery Sofiyanti, Kamarudin Mat-Salleh, Khairil Mahmud, Nor Zuhailah Mazlan,  Mohd. Ros. Albukharey Hasein and  David F.R.P. Burslem. 2016. Rafflesia parvimaculata (Rafflesiaceae), A New Species of Rafflesia from Peninsular Malaysia. Phytotaxa. 253(3);  DOI: 10.11646/phytotaxa.253.3.4

[Ichthyology • 2014] Gymnotus capitimaculatus • A New Species of Electric Fish (Gymnotiformes: Gymnotidae) from rio Jucuruçu basin, northeastern Brazil

Gymnotus capitimaculatus 
 Rangel-Pereira, 2014 

A new species of Gymnotus, from the G. pantherinus species-group, is herein described from the rio Jucuruçu basin, a coastal river drainage located in the southern part of Bahia state, northeastern Brazil. Gymnotus capitimaculatus sp. n. differs from all congeners by having an pair of round blotches anteriorly positioned or under vertical passing through eye, on ventral portion of the head. Furthermore, Gymnotus capitimaculatus also differs from all members of the G. pantherinus species-group by having the following unique combination of characters states: tail with an unique series of bands or round spots; precaudal portion of trunk without bands but either with rounded and/or vermiculated spots; forty-five precaudal vertebrae; nine scales above lateral line at mid-body; anal-fin base length 75.2–78.6 % of TL; anus-anal fin length 101.4–122.8 % of HL; and branchial opening 38.5–45.0 % of HL.

Key words: Atlantic Forest, Biodiversity, electric eels, Gymnotus pantherinus complex, Knife-fish, taxonomy

Distribution. Known only from rio do Ouro, a tributary of the rio Jucuruçu, Itamaraju municipality, Bahia state, northeastern Brazil.

Etymology. Named capitimaculatus from the Latin subject capitis (head) and adjective maculatus (blotchy), due to the presence of a pair of blotches in the ventral portion of the head. 

Ecology. The specimens were collected in a clear water stream which topical width was about 1.5 m, depth ranged from 0.1 to 1 m and the bottom was composed of sand and small gravel. The matrix through where the stream flowed was composed of a mix of grass pasture and scarce riparian forest. Individuals were found deeply hidden among marginal vegetation and roots, mostly where the water flow was faster. Another species of the genus Gymnotus, belonging to the G. carapo species group, was found sympatrically, but not syntopically, since it was caught where the water flow was slower.

 Rangel-Pereira F.S. 2014. Gymnotus capitimaculatus, A New Species of Electric Fish from rio Jucuruçu basin, northeastern Brazil (Ostariophysi: Gymnotiformes: Gymnotidae). Vertebrate Zoology. 64(2); 169–175. 

Resumo: Uma nova espécie de Gymnotus, pertencente ao grupo de espécies G. pantherinus, é aqui descrita para a bacia do rio Jucuruçu, uma drenagem fluvial costeira localizada no sul do estado da Bahia, nordeste do Brasil. Gymnotus capitimaculatus sp. n. difere de todos seus congêneres por possuir a porção ventral da cabeça com um par de máculas posicionadas anteriormente ou sob vertical que passa pelo olho. Ademais, Gymnotus capitimaculatus também difere de todos os membros do grupo G. pantherinus pela seguinte combinação exclusiva de caracteres: cauda com uma única série de barras os manchas arredondadas; porção pré-caudal do tronco sem barras ou com manchas arredondadas ou vermiculadas; quarenta e cinco vértebras pré-caudais; nove escamas acima da linha lateral no meio do corpo; comprimento da base da nadadeira anal 75,2–78,6 % do TL; comprimento ânus-nadadeira anal 101,4–122,8 % do HL; e abertura branquial 38,5 –45,0 % do HL.

[Herpetology • 2016] How Draco Lizards Fly: A Novel Type of Wing in Animals

 formation of the composite wing during the initial phases of the gliding flight of Draco dussumieri seen from the front (left) and from below (right; corresponding photos of the same phases). The lizard jumps from the tree, reorients the body dorsoventrally and starts to spread the anterior ribs; the extended arms reach behind the back (top). The anterior ribs are further spread by the trunk musculature; the hands grasp the leading edge of the patagium and pull it forward (middle). The patagium is fully extended and controlled by the forelimbs; the glide path becomes more horizontal (bottom). White arrows indicate the positions of the hands.
Dehling, 2016.   DOI: 10.1101/086496 


Flying lizards of the genus Draco are famous for their gliding ability, using an aerofoil formed by winglike patagial membranes and supported by elongated thoracic ribs. It has remained unknown, however, how the lizards manoeuvre during flight. Here, I show that the patagium is deliberately grasped and controlled by the forelimbs while airborne. This type of composite wing is unique inasmuch as the lift-generating and the controlling units are formed independently by different parts of the body and are connected to each other only for the duration of the flight. The major advantage for the lizards is that the forelimbs keep their entire movement range and functionality for climbing and running when they are not used as the controlling unit of the wing. These findings not only shed a new light on the flight of Draco lizards but also have implications for the interpretation of gliding performance in fossil species.

  KEYWORDS: Draco, flying lizard, gliding flight, patagium

J Maximilian Dehling. 2016. How Lizards Fly: A Novel Type of Wing in Animals.
 BioRxiv. DOI: 10.1101/086496 

Dragon lizards fly by grabbing their fold-up wings with ‘hands’


[Ichthyology • 2016] Galeus corriganae • A New Species of Deepwater Catshark (Carcharhiniformes: Pentanchidae) from Papua New Guinea

Galeus corriganae 
White, Mana & Naylor, 2016


A new species of catshark, provisionally placed in the genus Galeus, is described from Papua New Guinea based on 7 specimens collected during recent deepwater surveys of the region. The new species, Galeus corriganae, is closest to G. priapus from New Caledonia and G. gracilis from northwestern Australia but differs in several morphological characters. A reclassification of the catshark groups is required to revise the familial and generic arrangement of the group.

Keywords: Pisces, Galeus, catshark, new species, Papua New Guinea, Pentanchidae

William T. White, Ralph R. Mana and Gavin J. P. Naylor. 2016. Galeus corriganae sp. nov., A New Species of Deepwater Catshark (Carcharhiniformes: Pentanchidae) from Papua New Guinea. Zootaxa.  4205(3); 255–264. DOI: 10.11646/zootaxa.4205.3.5

Introducing Corrigan's Catshark - Galeus corriganae - a new catshark from Papua New Guinea named after Dr Shannon Corrigan @CTOL_Project

In Memoriam: King Bhumibol Adulyadej, 1927-2016 | พระบาทสมเด็จพระปรมินทรมหาภูมิพลอดุลยเดชฯ บรมนาถบพิตร

Bhumibol Adulyadej (Thai: ภูมิพลอดุลยเดช; pronounced [pʰuːmípʰon ʔàdunjádèːt], 5 December 1927 – 13 October 2016), conferred with the title King Bhumibol the Great in 1987, was the ninth monarch of Thailand from the Chakri Dynasty as Rama IX. Having reigned since 9 June 1946, he was, at the time of his death, the world's longest-serving head of state and the longest-reigning monarch in Thai history, serving for 70 years, 126 days.  

• หมึกสายราชา Amphioctopus rex (Nateewathana & Norman, 1999)

• 'ปูเจ้าพ่อหลวง' Indochinamon bhumibol (Naiyanetr, 2001)

เพื่อเป็นการเฉลิมพระเกียรติพระบาทสมเด็จพระเจ้าอยู่หัว เนื่องในวโรกาสมหามงคลเฉลิมพระชนมพรรษา 6 รอบ จุฬาลงกรณ์มหาวิทยาลัยได้ค้นพบปูชนิดใหม่ของโลก เป็นปูน้ำจืดตัวใหญ่ที่สุดในประเทศไทย ณ บริเวณภูหลวง อำเภอวังสะพุง จังหวัดเลย โดย ศาสตราจารย์ ไพบูลย์ นัยเนตร ภาควิชาชีววิทยา คณะวิทยาศาสตร์ จุฬาลงกรณ์มหาวิทยาลัย ได้ทำหนังสือกราบบังคมทูลขอพระราชทานพระบรมราชานุญาตอัญเชิญพระปรมาภิไธย พระบาทสมเด็จพระเจ้าอยู่หัวเป็นนามปูน้ำจืดชนิดใหม่ของโลก โดยเรียกชื่อวิทยาศาสตร์ของปูที่พบใหม่ว่า Potamon bhumibol ชื่อไทยว่า ปูเจ้าพ่อหลวง มีชื่อสามัญว่า Giant Mountain Crab และได้รับพระบรมราชานุญาต เมื่อวันที่ 5 มกราคม 2543 โดยจะทำการพิมพ์เผยแพร่ปูที่พบใหม่นี้ในวารสารต่างประเทศชื่อ Crustacena, International Journal of Crustacean Research 
ลักษณะเด่นของปูเจ้าพ่อหลวงมี 3 สี คือ สีน้ำตาลเข้ม สีม่วง และสีส้ม โดยกระดองจะเป็นสีน้ำตาลเข้ม ขาเดิน 4 คู่ และขาก้ามทั้งสองข้างเป็นสีน้ำตาลเข้ม ยกเว้นด้านในของก้ามหนีบอันล่างเป็นสีม่วง และปลายก้ามหนีบทั้งสองข้างเป็นสีส้ม เป็นปูน้ำจืดตัวใหญ่ที่สุดในประเทศไทย

• 'เต่าทรงพระเจริญ'  Basilochelys macrobios  Tong, Claude, Naksri, et al, 2009

• เทียนพระบารมี Impatiens charisma Suksathan & Keerat. (2009)

• มะลิเฉลิมนรินทร์ Jasminum bhumibolianum Chalermglin (2013)

• ภูมิพลินทร์ Paraboea bhumiboliana Triboun & Chuchan (2012)

• Nateewathana, A. and Norman, M.D. 1999. Phuket Mar. Biol. Center Special Publ. 19(2); 445-462.
• Naiyanetr, P. 2001. Potamon bhumibhol n. sp., a new giant freshwater crab from Thailand (Decapoda, Brachyura, Potamidae). Crustaceana 74(3); 309-316.
• Haiyan Tong, Julien Claude, Wilailuck Naksri, Varavudh Suteethorn, Eric Buffetaut, Sasidhorn Khansubha, Kamonrak Wongko and Phisit Yuangdetkla. 2009.  Basilochelys macrobios n. gen. and n. sp., A Large Cryptodiran Turtle from the Phu Kradung Formation (latest Jurassic-earliest Cretaceous) of the Khorat Plateau, NE Thailand. In: Buffetaut, E.; Cuny, G.; Le Loeuff, J. & Suteethorn, V. (eds.). Late Palaeozoic and Mesozoic Ecosystems in SE Asia. Geological Society, London, Special Publications. 315: 229-243. DOI:  10.1144/SP315.12

• Suksathan, P. and P. Triboun. 2009. Ten new species of Impatiens (Balsaminaceae) from Thailand. Gardens’ Bulletin Singapore. 61 (1): 159-184.
• Pramote Triboun and David J. Middleton. 2012. Twenty new species of Paraboea (Gesneriaceae) from Thailand. Gardens’ Bulletin Singapore. 64(2): 333–370.

• Chalermglin, P. and Kiew, R. 2013. A new species of Jasminum (Oleaceae) from Thailand. Blumea - Biodiversity, Evolution and Biogeography of Plants. 58 (3); 80-81. DOI: 10.3767/000651913X673216



พันธุ์สัตว์และพรรณพืช อันเนื่องด้วยพระปรมาภิไธย

 ชื่อวิทยาศาสตร์สิ่งมีชีวิต ตั้งขึ้นเพื่อถวายเป็นเกียรติพระบรมวงศานุวงศ์

[Botany • 2012] The Enigmatic Ginger Alpinia melichroa Rediscovered in southeast Sulawesi, Indonesia

Alpinia melichroa (K. Schum.) K. Schum.
 Alpinia sect. Botryamomum (K. Schum.) K. Schum.

Recent collections from Sulawesi allow an investigation of Amomum subgenus Botryamomum K. Schum. and its three species, Amomum chrysogynia K. Schum., Aechinosphaera K. Schum., and A. melichroum K. Schum. It is concluded that this subgenus contains a single species, Amomum melichroum K. Schum. Amomum subgenus Botryamomum and Amomum melichroum are lectotypified and Schumann's classification of them as Alpinia melichroa (K. Schum.) K. Schum. in Alpinia sect. Botryamomum (K. Schum.) K. Schum. is accepted. An amplified description including flowers and fruits is provided. Alpinia melichroa is narrowly distributed in southeastern Sulawesi; a conservation assessment is given. Sulawesi is the world's eleventh largest island with a land area greater than 180 000 km 2 . It lies in Wallacea which is the biogeographical region between Borneo and New Guinea, bounded by Wallace's line to the west and Lydekker's line to the east. Botanical exploration of Sulawesi is very far from com-plete. At the beginning of the 'Flora Malesiana' project, van Steenis (1950) estimated that only 18 herbarium specimens per 100 km 2 had been collected, a far lower number than in Peninsular Malaysia, Java, the Philippines and the Moluccas. Botanical collecting has been limited for most of the 60 years since van Steenis made his calculation and it is unlikely that the collecting density index is much higher today. This general lack of collecting effort is compounded in Zingiberaceae by other historical factors. The first significant collections from Sulawesi are those of Beccari, who visited the island in 1872–1874, leaving many valuable collections at FI. In the 1880s, Warburg made numerous collections in Sulawesi and was followed by the Sarasin cousins who made two long expeditions to Sulawesi in 1893–1896 and 1902–1903. At this period, K. M. Schumann was working on a revision of the Zingiberaceae for Engler's 'Das Pflanzenreich' (1904). Schumann worked at the Botanical Museum Berlin-Dahlem, where fire bombing in 1943 destroyed the wing of the herbarium which housed the monocotyledons. It seems that most of Warburg's and all of the Sarasins' collections were destroyed in this fire because stringent efforts by a number of experts in Zingiberaceae have located almost no surviving material.

 Nicky J. Sharp, Mark F. Newman, Yessi Santika, Gufrin and Axel Dalberg Poulsen. 2012. The Enigmatic Ginger Alpinia melichroa Rediscovered in southeast Sulawesi. Nordic Journal of Botany. 30(2); 163–167. DOI: 10.1111/j.1756-1051.2011.01122.x

Tuesday, December 6, 2016

[Ichthyology • 2016] Liniparhomaloptera macrostoma • A New Hillstream Loach (Teleostei: Gastromyzontidae) from Hunan Province, China

 Liniparhomaloptera macrostoma Wu, Xiu & Yang, 2016

Photograph by Jiahu Lan 

Liniparhomaloptera macrostoma, new species, is described from Hunan Province, south China. It is distinguished from its congers by having 8 branched dorsal-fin rays, more lateral line scales (82-100), relatively wider mouth and lower lip separated into two parts.

 Liniparhomaloptera macrostoma
Photograph by Jiahu Lan

Wu, Tiejun, Lihui Xiu and Jian Yang. 2016. Liniparhomaloptera macrostoma, A New Hillstream Loach from Hunan Province, China (Teleostei: Gastromyzontidae). Ichthyological Exploration of Freshwaters, An international journal for field-orientated ichthyology. 27(3); 275-282. 


[Fungi • 2016] Amanita castanea • A New Species and Four New Records of Amanita (Amanitaceae; Basidiomycota) from Northern Thailand

Amanita castanea  
Thongbai, Tulloss, Raspé & K.D. Hyde  

Mushrooms belonging to the genus Amanita were collected during a fungal biodiversity study in northern Thailand in 2012–2014. Morphological characteristics and molecular phylogenetic analyses were used to identify the mushrooms to species. Amanita castanea is described as new to science and compared with phenetically and phylogenetically similar species. It is assignable to Amanita stirps Citrina within Amanita series Mappae. Four other species, A. concentrica, A. rimosa, A. cf. rubromarginata and A. zangii are first reports for Thailand; detailed morphological and molecular data are provided for the Thai material.

Key words: Amanitaceae, ectomycorrhizal fungi, morphology, phylogeny

FIGURE 1. Basidiomata of Amanita castanea.
  a young and mature basidiomata. b–d basidiospores in 5% KOH. fh basidiospores in congo red. ik basidiospores in Melzer’s reagent. lo basidia and subhymenium at different stages of development. (a–o: BZ201405, holotype) (scale bar: a = 2 cm, b–k = 6 µm, l–o = 10 µm). 

Amanita castanea Thongbai, Tulloss, Raspé & K.D. Hyde, sp. nov.
Index Fungorum number: IF552009; MycoBank: MB 818356; Facesoffungi number: FoF 02074

Etymology:— castanea’ refers to the chestnut color of the pileus.
Holotype:— THAILAND, Chiang Mai Province, Doi-saket District, Thep-sadet Subdistrict, elev. 1300 m, 30 June 2014, B. Thongbai (MFLU15-1424!).

Habitat: scattered on the ground in forest of Fagaceae. 

 Four New Records
Amanita concentrica T. Oda, C. Tanaka & Tsuda, Mycoscience. 43 (1): 81, 2002a (Figure 3) 
Amanita rimosa P. Zhang & Zhu L. Yang, Fungal Diversity. 42: 124, 2010 (Figure 4)

Amanita cf. rubromarginata Har. Takah., Mycoscience. 45 (6): 372, 2004 (Figure 5)
Amanita zangii Zhu L. Yang, T.H. Li & X.L. Wu, Fungal Diversity. 6: 160, 2001 (Figure 6)  

In the present study, we document a novel species and four first records of Amanita species in northern Thailand. Species circumscriptions and identification are supported by both phylogenic and morphological evidence. One interesting exception might be Amanita cf. rubromarginata. The characteristics of the Thai collections, especially the colors of the pileus, agree well with the type description. However, additional collections made in southwestern Japan indicate that the colors of aging A. rubromarginata might be more different from the Thai collections than originally thought. According to illustrations in the recent book of SE Japanese fungi (Terashima et al. 2016), the center of the cap can be nearly black and the margin, olive. These colors were never observed in the Thai material. Therefore, more collections should be made from Thailand to assess the color variation.

 Further molecular studies with multiple genes that avoid loci of the nuclear ribosomal DNA cistron and expanded taxon sampling are needed to resolve the tree topology for some Amanita sections, e.g. Amanita sect. Caesareae (Sánchez-Ramírez et al. 2014, 2015), A. sect. Validae series Mappae (Drehmel et al. 1999, Hughes et al. 2013, Tulloss & Yang 2016d), A. sect. Lepidella sensu Bas (Tulloss et al. 2016) and A. sect. Phalloideae (Cai et al. 2014, Tulloss et al. 2016). A possible set of four protein-coding loci was proposed by Sánchez-Ramírez et al. (2014) and utilized in (Sánchez-Ramírez et al. 2015).

 Benjarong Thongbai, Rodham E. Tulloss, Steven L. Miller, Kevin D. Hyde, Jie Chen, Rui-Lin Zhao and Olivier Raspé. 2016. A New Species and Four New Records of Amanita (Amanitaceae; Basidiomycota) from Northern Thailand.
 Phytotaxa286(4); 211–231. DOI: 10.11646/phytotaxa.286.4.1